Transformers operate according to Faraday’s law or the first law of Electromagnetism ¨ An electric current is induced in a circuit if it is under the action of a variable magnetic field¨.
A magnetic field is a region of space induced by any moving charge, such as the electric current (i) corresponding to moving electrons, or by material with specific properties, such as the magnet.
The electric charge acme TB81301 creates around itself an electric field with lines of electric field entering (negative charge) or leaving (positive charge). The magnet and a moving charge create a magnetic field (B), and whenever its field lines arise from a north pole (positive) and arrives at a south pole (negative), thus unraveling two poles simultaneously.
The earth also has this same principle, it generates a magnetic field due to its nucleus formed by iron and nickel, thus possessing north and south poles, and this is inclusive, the principle of operation of the compass, used for localization, and is a magnet With its north always pointing towards geographical land north.